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by Elena Tran
Let me put on my scientist hat for a moment and explain what microfiber is. I am not talking about the cloth that we use to wipe the glasses although it’s made from the same stuff. Microfibers are microscopic plastic fibers. They are shedding from both synthetic and natural textiles (Le), particularly from those fabrics that are short in length, or loosely spun or woven.
The largest amount of microfibers is released from polyester fabrics so it makes sense to explain what these materials are made from. They are basically complex synthetic polymers (large chains of repeating molecules) that are chemically treated to make them into fibers. They start as plastic pellets or chips that are derived from petroleum oil and they are then combined with other chemicals, heated, melted and made into yarns. (Clive Hallett). Sometimes polyester fibers are combined with other natural fibers to make polyester blends.
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Most microfiber shedding occurs during laundering. These plastic particles are so small that they cannot be easily removed and they flow straight into the rivers, lakes and oceans. To put this into perspective, since the microfibers originated from synthetic fabrics are not biodegradable, they are directly contributing to plastic pollution, just like plastic water bottles. One research in 2016 claimed that “the annual microfiber release from textiles (apparel) into the marine environment was 0.19 million tons annually.” (Leonas) In addition, the environmental scientists estimate that “20% to 35% of all primary source microplastics in the marine environment are fibers from use of synthetic clothing”. (Kirsi Laitala) That takes my breath away.
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Since laundering is the greatest culprit of microfibers being released from the fabrics, I will focus on that. We are familiar with lint filter bags in our dryers and they are extremely helpful in catching the longer microfibers (greater than 1 millimeters). However, they are helpless when it comes to the shorter ones that are polluting our lakes as we speak. Wastewater treatment plants cannot remove these particles either. The greatest amount of microfibers comes from synthetic fabrics (acrylic, nylon, polyester, rubber) and the amount increases as washing temperature increases and even the detergent selection play a vital part. (LibiaoYang)
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Considering that synthetic fabrics are produced in such large numbers (70% of global fiber production (Kirsi Laitala), the consequences of our choices are alarming. Here are some more hard facts for you. Three Belgian studies already found microplastics in mussels and oysters. There is also increasing evidence of plastic debris in fish, honey and even salt. (https://www.plasticsoupfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Position-Paper.Microfiber-release-from-clothes-after-washing.PSF_.pdf) Is the fashion industry putting wool over our eyes by staying silent about this very serious danger to the environment and our health? Since we often decide with our wallets, are we need to make a few changes to change what’s happening.
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Clive Hallett, Amanda Johnston. Fabric for fashion: The complete guide. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2014.
https://www.plasticsoupfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Position-Paper.Microfiber-release-from-clothes-after-washing.PSF_.pdf. May 2017.
Kirsi Laitala, Ingun Grimstad Klepp and Beverley Henry. "Does use matter? Comparison of environmental impacts of clothing based on fiber type." Sustainability (2018). <https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072524>.
Le, Kilara. "Microfiber Shedding: Hidden Environmental Impact." AATCC Review 17 (2017): 30-37. <https://doi.org/10.14504/ar.17.5.1>.
Leonas, Karen K. "Textile and Apparel Industry Addresses Emerging Issue of Microfiber Pollution." (n.d.). <https://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/JTATM/article/view/14851>.
LibiaoYang, FeiQiao,KunLei,HuiqinLi,YuKang,SongCui,LihuiAn. "Microfiber release from different fabrics during washing." Environmental Pollution 249 (2019): 136-143. <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0269749118346104>.